Friday, January 27, 2006


Town (township), Rockingham county, southeastern New Hampshire, U.S., just west of Haverhill, Massachusetts. The town includes the communities of Salem, Salem Depot, and North Salem. Originally a part of Haverhill, it was set off in 1725 and incorporated as Methuen. The final decision of the Massachusetts–New Hampshire boundary line (1741) divided the town; the New Hampshire portion

Friday, November 18, 2005

Kadare, Ismail

The son of a post-office worker in the town of Gjirokastër, Kadare studied at the University of Tiranë and later at the Gorky Institute of World Literature in Moscow until 1960. Upon returning to Albania, he became a journalist and also embarked on a literary career. He endured

Wednesday, July 27, 2005


Any of a group of hydrated double salts, usually consisting of aluminum sulfate, water of hydration, and the sulfate of another element. A whole series of hydrated double salts results from the hydration of the sulfate of a univalent cation (e.g., potassium) and the sulfate of any one of a number of trivalent cations (e.g., aluminum). Aluminum sulfate can thus form alums with

Sunday, July 24, 2005

Chadwick, Sir Edwin

As secretary of the royal commission on reform of the poor laws (1834–46), Chadwick was largely responsible for devising the system under which the country was divided into groups of parishes administered by elected boards of guardians,

Thursday, July 07, 2005


City, seat of Jasper county, southwestern Missouri, U.S. It lies along Spring River, just east of Joplin. Established in 1842, it was named for ancient Carthage. During the Civil War, it was a centre of border warfare and was destroyed by Confederate guerrillas in 1863; it was rebuilt in 1866. Carthage is an agricultural-trade centre (fruits, small grains, dairy products) and is noted for its

Wednesday, July 06, 2005


City, seat (1834) of Talladega county, east-central Alabama, U.S., in the foothills of the southern Appalachian Mountains, about 60 miles (100 km) east of Birmingham. The site was originally inhabited by Creek Indians, and its name was derived from Creek words meaning “border town.” On November 9, 1813, Andrew Jackson defeated a large force of Creek there, and the Creek were forced out in the 1830s. During

Wednesday, June 29, 2005


The training of living trees and shrubs into artificial, decorative shapes. Thickly leaved evergreen shrubs are used in topiary; the best subjects are box, cypress, and yew, although others—such as rosemary, holly, and box honeysuckle—are used with success. Topiary is said to have been invented by a friend of the ancient Roman emperor Augustus and is known to have been